Category Archives: Geology

Rainbows Genesis Science Refraction Noah

As waves travel into the denser medium, they slow down and wavelength decreases.

Part of the wave travels faster for longer causing the wave to turn.

The wave is slower but the wavelength is shorter meaning frequency remains the same.

Think of it this way:

The source (whatever) send out a wave every second.

So they will keep coming at one a second.

That is the frequency, 1 Hz.

Just doing something that affects the wavelength of the waves after they have been sent won’t affect the frequency, basically they will keep arriving at one per second because they are one second apart.

Changing the wavelength differentially along the length of a wavefront is a trick that can make it turn a bit of a corner – refraction, but that has no effect on the frequency.

The colour of light is an effect of its wavelength upon the eye. Therefore differential refraction causes the light to spread into a rainbow as different wavelengths refract by different angles.

copyright BBC bitesize

In this diagram, the right hand side of the incoming wave slows down before the left hand side does. This causes the wave to change direction.

Credit to BBC bitesize for the diagram and some of the explanation of refraction – 

https://www.bbc.com/bitesize/guides/z9bwpbk/revision/2

Now listen up ‘cos this is important…
The refractive index of air changes as humidity increases.

Liquid water (eg raindrops) refractive index is equal to a number which is 1.33 and for the humid air the number is generally in the 1-1.33 range. Yes that’s right, it can be 1.33, exactly the same as the water. When the numbers are the same you don’t get any refraction, so no rainbow. So if the air is very humid, no rainbows.

Genesis 2:5–6:

When no bush of the field was yet in the land and no small plant of the field had yet sprung up—for the Lord God had not caused it to rain on the land, and there was no man to work the ground, and a mist was going up from the land and was watering the whole face of the ground.

So pre-flood the air was very humid so there were no rainbows, then the fountains of the deep opened and the huge amount of dust that would have been sent into the atmosphere by these enormous space-reaching fountains like those we see on Jupiter’s moon Europa.

Credit for image copyright NASA

These fountains were caused in the case of Earth by the collapse of the outer crust/upper mantle onto the lower mantle, forcing down onto the underground ocean 350-450 miles down that could only then escape by fountaining out at incredible pressure upwards like a volcano – the remnant of which underground ocean is now trapped into a layer of rock called ringwoodite, and is of course some of the water now also exists above ground as the familiar oceans such as the Atlantic and Pacific that cover 3/4 off the world, a covering that was not formerly present.

This eruption of water would have provided a huge injection of dust into the atmosphere, giving nucleation sites to form droplets, clouds and eventually rain. Water vapour needs little specks of dust to form droplets. This means that water collects together out of solution, making the air less humid, allowing than for rainbows to form.

Hebrews 11:7:

By faith Noah, being warned by God concerning events as yet unseen, in reverent fear constructed an ark for the saving of his household. 

The thing he had not yet seen was rain, but when it came it was a deluge for not only were there the fountains of the deep crashing back to earth all the way from orbit, normal rain started as well.

These events of course completely transformed the earth geologically giving us the mountains oceans and continents we have today. The upheavals that started with the cracking and collapse of the other crust split it into the moving tectonic plates we now know. 

All this is the result of the hot earth thinking as it cooled.

So, what the bible says about the flood is generally supported by the sciences of geology, astronomy (eg Io), meteorology (details like nucleation) and physics (refractive indices). One of course would expect nothing less if the Bible is true. 

Several items used in this article are copyright to others and are re-presented here. That is the nature of research. I believe my use of this is fair use but if the copyright owners wish I will happily remove their content if they contact me through WordPress or directly to request this.

Advertisements

Scotland trip 2017

The world may be your oyster, but Scotland is a pearl.

Inveraray, Oban, The Trossachs, Speyside, Loch Fyne, Loch Awe, Lock Tay, The Spey, The Tay, Loch Long, Dunbar…

Scotland is awesome.

All pictures in this blog article are Copyright 2017 by me, except two, which are Copyright 2017 by my Wife, which said exceptional photographs I use here with her permission. None of the images in this article/webpage/blog post may be used without our respective permissions. All Rights Reserved.

One picture is from Yorkshire, England (The 1930’s “No Parking” sign).

 

Where did I go?

fish

There has been an awesome lot of stuff happening in my life. Good but difficult stuff that is still happening so I am not quite ready to share it – maybe in two more weeks. Suffice it to say for now that the Lord is being very good to me and hence to my family, so I praise the Lord for that.

volc2

Physically I have been a few hundred miles away from my usual abode, with my wife taking our usual annual anniversary vacation, which we often take in Scotland as that is where we honeymooned. Scotland is not like England either in landscape or culture. Scotland is a fabulous country, which of all the European countries other than my own England that I have thus far visited (some 30 or so), I would say I like the most. I love its slightly French, slightly German, slightly English, slightly Scandinavian landscape, culture and architecture. Of course whilst it is slightly like these places, what it really is, is Scottish – distinct and lovely.

blue loch

So whilst it is not quite time for me to tell you about what has been happening in my life and how the Lord has been helping, here are some some pictures of lovely Scotland – a country I would urge you to visit for a vacation if you have never done so, and to do so again if you already have! The photography on this page is all my own (including the fish) and is copyright please, so if you wish to use any please contact me first.

mountains blue

ullapool harbour

Watching a small band of mist and rain move over the loch reminded us of the phrase in Genesis about God moving over the face of the waters…

face of the waters

If you take a room opposite the ferry port in Ullapool, the view is just sublime…

window

Sheep may safely graze…

sheep1

While (some very good but difficult) things have been happening in my life, which I cannot just yet report, a couple of verses have been worth holding in mind, and so I’ll pass them on:

Isaiah 40:31 King James Version (KJV)

31 But they that wait upon the Lord shall renew their strength; they shall mount up with wings as eagles; they shall run, and not be weary; and they shall walk, and not faint.

2 Timothy 1:7 New King James Version (NKJV)

For God has not given us a spirit of fear, but of power and of love and of a sound mind.

Pi in the sky.

1 Kings 7:23 (KJV)
and
2 Chronicles 4:2 (KJV)
both tell us about a large ceremonial vessel that King Soloman had made.

If something appears more than once in the Bible it is VERY IMPORTANT.

Reading these, taking a simple approach to these translations of originally Hebrew writings can lead us to think that the value of Pi (the ratio of a circle’s circumference to its diameter) was either believed to be 3 in those times, or that the Bible reports the matter wrongly.

This can lead to speculation as to whether space was hyperbolically (negatively) curved by Pi over 3 which would give a value of Pi as 3. Apart from possible flaws in my math (!) there are probable flaws in that as a theory because Pi is meaningless in non-Euclidian geometries (try it with different circles on the surface of a sphere for instance).

Fortunately a great bible scholar has explained the apparent discrepancy in the reported values by resort to analysis of the Hebrew text. The way the Hebrew is written is odd and has additions to the words that tell us to apply Hebrew letter values to the measurements in the account, and when this is done, Pi comes out as very very accurate in engineering terms. Chuck Missler’s explanation is here http://www.khouse.org/articles/1998/158/

Job 26:10 (KJV) describes “He hath compassed the waters with bounds, until the day and night come to an end.”

This is sometimes, in other translations of the Bible, given as inscribing a circle of light on the earth, between day and night. Whatever, it is clear from other passages in Job – e.g. 26:7 (“He stretcheth out the north over the empty place, and hangeth the earth upon nothing.”) – that the Earth is being described as it is seen from space (who has seen the regions of the North Pole or the Earth hanging in space when that was written eh?

These clues peppered around the Bible ask us to think about the circumference of our planet and how it might change, whilst giving a watery oceanic context to the puzzle. Kings, Chronicles, Job all talk of circles and seas.

When considering water on a global scale we are led to think about Genesis and the great flood. I wrote about the Knuckle theory of the great flood  at https://kevintangodance.wordpress.com/tag/noah/

In terms of the Knuckle theory, think about the difference between the circumference of the earth pre- and post- the collapse of the outer shell of land (that squeezed out the underground sea as the fountains of the deep). Is that difference related in magnitude to the apparent difference between Pi and 3 pointed to in Kings and Chronicles? If so we have another watermark (pun?!) of truth and authenticity that cross-authenticates the Bible itself and the history of the flood that it gives us.

If the underground sea was about 500 miles down (460) which is an approximation of the depth used in knuckle theory, then the diameter of the earth around the inner sea’s top surface is about 1000 miles (1250) less than the diameter of the earth that is described from space in Job. This gives a difference in the calculated circumference of those two spheres that is close to the difference between Pi and 3.

Things in the Bible are important if they are repeated. God’s word invites us to enquire, to make connections and see that things in it that may at first seem difficult to comprehend are actually true. He gives us in the Bible a careful network of supporting evidence that shows that not only is the Bible a coherent whole that could only have been assembled for us by divine guidance for it’s hidden logical watermarks to align, but tells us of things we would find hard to believe – the writer knew what the Earth looks like from space (He had seen it’s stunning beauty and just had to describe that amazing sight) – hard to believe things such as that there was a great flood.

As Chuck Missler so appositely quotes:

But the Comforter, which is the Holy Ghost, whom the Father will send in my name, he shall teach you all things, and bring all things to your remembrance, whatsoever I have said unto you. – John 14:26

As I was typing this, David Maasbach on his radio station quoted:

John 16:14 (KJV) He shall glorify me: for he shall receive of mine, and shall shew it unto you.

Link to the lovely Maasbach Radio for your listening enjoyment. What a good looking website by the way.

POST SCRIPT

As I was about to post this I read that NASA have discovered the oldest galaxy yet, named GN-z11. Story here. Sounds a bit like Genesis 1:1 (KJV) – “In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth.”  Ha Ha! SOMEONE has a sense of humour.

Praise the Lord!

Pluto’s telltale tail

Scientists have discovered that Pluto has a long tail. Actually it is the tiny planet’s atmosphere evaporating away.

http://www.techinsider.io/pluto-dwarf-planet-ion-gas-tail-nasa-new-horizons-2015-7

Now a tiny planet with an evaporating atmosphere, well its atmosphere wouldn’t last long would it? In hardly any time at all it would be as airless as our moon. So if the planets formed billions of years ago, well there would be no tail to Pluto. If Pluto was created about 6000 years ago however, there would still be some atmosphere left to make a tail.

And God said, Let there be lights in the firmament of the heaven to divide the day from the night; and let them be for signs, and for seasons, and for days, and years
 – Genesis 1:14 King James Version (KJV)

Signs, years. Yes Lord.

Knuckle down

How common are vast planet-wide underground oceans?

Jupiter’s moon Ganymede has vast underground ocean
http://article.wn.com/view/2015/03/12/Jupiters_moon_Ganymede_has_vast_underground_ocean/

How Jupiter Moon Europa’s Underground Ocean Was Discovered
http://www.space.com/19750-voyager-mission-jupiter-moon-europa-ocean.html

Underground ocean found on Saturn’s moon Enceladus
http://www.theguardian.com/science/ng-interactive/2014/apr/03/underground-ocean-saturn-moon-enceladus-graphic

Ancient Mars Water May Have Flowed Underground
http://www.space.com/13475-ancient-mars-water-underground-evidence.html

Earth may have underground ‘ocean’ three times that on surface
http://www.theguardian.com/science/2014/jun/13/earth-may-have-underground-ocean-three-times-that-on-surface

So vast planet-wide oceans are not a crazy idea – they are commonplace and seemingly occur wherever there are planets and other planet sized rocks.

The crust of our planet that everyone lives on used to slide around on the core lubricated by a layer of water in between. It was made that way as we are told.

Genesis 1:6-8
“And God said, Let there be a firmament in the midst of the waters, and let it divide the waters from the waters. And God made the firmament, and divided the waters which were under the firmament from the waters which were above the firmament: and it was so. And God called the firmament Heaven. And the evening and the morning were the second day.”

The bible uses accurate descriptive language.
If you read it more literally in the proper translation (the original KJV) you can learn scientific facts, properly. Jesus, the author, was called Rabbi. Rabbi means teacher. Rabbi means appointed leader. Which Rabbis do you trust?

A earth was bit like the shell of an uncooked egg sliding around over a huge yolk lubricated by the white of the egg. The egg gets knocked and spins and something cracks the shell a little bit. If the egg cracks in a few places but holds together pretty much, you will get some leakage of white though the cracks and bits of the shell will collapse directly onto the yolk as the layer of white in between has escaped. Egg white covers the surface of the egg, but it drys out quickly in many places.

If this happens to a real planet with a planet-wide underground ocean the flood comes up out of the ground and the land collapses onto the lower solid part beneath the water layer as the incompressible water is forced out through the cracks. Can you imagine the force of a whole continent squeezing out a whole ocean though tiny gaps? It would be the most amazing fountain you could have. Can you imagine those fountains of the deep? Take look at a space picture of the water volcano on Europa. http://www.seasky.org/solar-system/assets/images/io03_sk12.jpg Europa’s fountain is tiny.

What kind of a mess would that make of the surface of the planet?

Geological Layers Laid Down Quickly Atop Mount St. Helens
http://www.creationism.org/articles/nelson1.htm

As the surface shell collapses huge amounts of pulverised rock are dissolved into the water then settle as many layers as the different particle sizes and densities settle at different rates. Geologists call layers of rock strata. You can see 21 feet of lots of different strata at Mount St.Helens where people actually stood and watched the 21 foot set of layers form in just 24 hours. Many layers of rock formed in just a day.

The many animals killed in the flood settled according to their densities and sizes also, and ended up in the different layers. They were buried suddenly so they didn’t rot. The wet earth leeched salts and minerals into them under hight pressure of the weight and they became like stone. Geologists call these fossils. They look like they got there gradually and change according to the layers, which gave people the idea of evolution, which was wrong. Evolution happens to relatively simple things like bacteria like they get immunity to antibiotics and new variations of diseases come along, but big things like cows and elephants and us can’t do that because the intermediate steps are not viable. Occassional variations (epigenetic, teratagenetic and other mutations) to big things mostly just die so don’t get to breed and pass it on.

Before the surface layer collapsed the air was low in moisture, but as day and night temperatures varied, some water percolated up through the ground as mist which was ample to sustain life. Something about the position of the planet, the state of its magnetic field and the solar wind drove off the water from the atmosphere quickly but the daily mists replenished it constantly from the vast underground ocean.

The planet began to shift position and the stress of this caused the surface layer collapse.

Genesis 7:
11In the six hundredth year of Noah’s life, in the second month, the seventeenth day of the month, the same day were all the fountains of the great deep broken up, and the windows of heaven were opened. 12And the rain was upon the earth forty days and forty nights.

Water welled up out of the earth.

The previously dry air became supersaturated with water and it rained as it had never previously done.

Genesis 7:
17And the flood was forty days upon the earth; and the waters increased, and bare up the ark, and it was lift up above the earth. 18And the waters prevailed, and were increased greatly upon the earth; and the ark went upon the face of the waters. 19And the waters prevailed exceedingly upon the earth; and all the high hills, that wereunder the whole heaven, were covered. 20Fifteen cubits upward did the waters prevail; and the mountains were covered. 21And all flesh died that moved upon the earth, both of fowl, and of cattle, and of beast, and of every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth, and every man: 22All in whose nostrils was the breath of life, of all that was in the dry land, died. 23And every living substance was destroyed which was upon the face of the ground, both man, and cattle, and the creeping things, and the fowl of the heaven; and they were destroyed from the earth: and Noah only remained alive, and they that were with him in the ark. 24And the waters prevailed upon the earth an hundred and fifty days.

So it was bad for the things living on the planet, but it needed a good wash because all the sin was making it stinky, and there was a rescue plan which we know about in detail which worked, so a few of the important species survived, including us.

The flood was over quickly because the conditions that caused the water in the atmosphere to be taken away into space persisted long enough to dry out much of the huge flood. The planet ended up in a new stable orbit where the atmospheric drying effect no longer happened, and was left with some of the floodwater as oceans still covering about two thirds of it’s surface in the areas where the collapsed surface had fallen deepest.

With a new moist atmosphere that didn’t get evaporated into space in the new stable orbit, all sorts of things like rain and rainbows could happen for the first time, and once the crust had collapsed it couldn’t ever happen again. The big bits of crust still moved about a bit and although there was still a huge amount of water down there in pockets, the movement of these plates with no lubrication they scraped on the inner layer and heated up due to the friction, making lot of magma which some of the water down there dissolved into. The symptom of all this was the tectonic plates, earthquakes and volcanoes we still have today.

Unfortunately the survivors have so far not all lived happily ever after, and an even worse disaster is coming.

The earth will wobble on its axis as the fabric of our four regular space-time dimensions that were stretched out will roll up like some of the the tiny other of the ten dimensions already are. It will curl into a singularity closed forever. The bible uses accurate descriptive language.

The good news is we know about this and there is a rescue plan.

Basics:

  1. The Bible is true
  2. Genesis is true
  3. The flood that Noah saved us from is true
  4. Revelation is true
  5. Jesus is the truth, the way and the life

Jesus as God made the whole universe, he made you, he loves you, the earth is broken and not worth repairing because it’s in a universe that is unstable, the forces of darkness are also in this universe, so he’s going to let it collapse into a singularity taking everything in it locking the bad away forever. He knew all this from the start, but he’s doing it this way so you get a choice, so you have free will with a real soul, alive like him who made you in his image, and are not just a clockwork toy.

The end of this universe will not be nice for anyone left here, but he can save you.

He will make a new universe which is called a new heaven.
He will make a new earth.
The bible uses accurate descriptive language.

He will take you there just before this one ends

He has told you everything you need to know in his living book.

Salvation is yours if you want it but it’s not compulsory, you have to choose it. You have choose him. A simple call on Jesus by name will do, you choose to change then call him, he will do the rest. Everything he has put in his book is true, and so is that.

The bible is an interactve book – you get to choose your own ending – I recommend the living happily ever after option.

High on a stone

Why beauty, wonder, awe?

Animals, as far as we know, have little or no appreciation of anything aesthetic, finding mountains, stars, storms, oceans, tigers, forests, or puppies pleasing is not really in their gift. Seemingly such feelings have scant evolutionary purpose. Perhaps an argument against evolution, perhaps not. We humans also find wonder and awe in understanding how a cell works, in how atoms and quarks work. We can be impressed and inspired by the works of other humans – bridges, dams, paintings.

Rosetta is NASA’s wonderful ambitious mission to get information from a comet. Wonderfully it worked. We have breathtaking images of a tiny little, fragile and temporary world. It was called Rosetta because the Rosetta stone was an archaeological object that helped us translate previously lost ancient languages and tell us something about the past.

NASA hopes that by understanding a stone in the sky, the comet, it may tell us about the past of the solar system. Evolutionary biologists wonder if it could tell us if chemical building blocks for life came from outer space.

Well I think it has already told us something different. I think we sent Rosetta because we are curious. I think we find the work of the people who made Rosetta brave and edifying because we can admire creators through their creation, and that what the mission found, a grey rock, beautiful not because it is pretty but because we are seeing something God made for the first time. I think we humans share a love of beauty with God because we have souls that are given us of God.

I think Rosetta is a key to understanding that we love Creation because we recognise there is a Creator, who created us in His image, and that curiosity and aesthetics are uniquely human because He made us.

I watched the moon landings, I have even done some work for NASA connected with them. Rosetta is, in my opinion, as a space nerd and child of the space age, the bravest loveliest mission since the moon. Not the most colourful or expensive, but the most ambitious and successful example of how we reach out to better know our universe, and inevitably then our Creator.

NASA did not intend any such thing, but God put that high rock there for us to one day climb, on our journey to better knowing Him.

WELL DONE NASA!

Exploration leads us to the Creator. The crew of Apollo 8 read from Genesis on Christmas Eve 1968 as they orbited the Moon. The recognition of God such awe of being in His incredible creation brings is inescapable. We have all felt that feeling. It is God calling you. Look at a newborn baby and feel it. You are feeling what He feel as He sees that baby, that He made in His image, that through Him we make in our image.

Psalm 143:5 NIV
I meditate on all your works
and consider what your hands have done.

I had a vision of looking into Jesus’ eyes and seeing the beautiful blue of earth from space. He is the light of the world, our maker.

 

 

Grounded in truth

Skeptics question where the water of the great flood could have come from and gone to. The Bible says it was mostly from underground.
–  Genesis 7:12 “.,,fountains of the great deep… ”
Now “Scientific American” magazine 12 March 2014″ reports a “Nature” article that confirms a mineral called olivine exists in Earth’s mantle in quantities that contains more water than all the existing oceans put together.