Category Archives: Math

Arrow of Time

Space is multi-dimensional, unlike the two-dimensional trees in the brand new district of Cambridge, UK known as Eddington.

Space is expanding because the universe is expanding.

It is expanding away from every point in itself equally like every point on the surface of an inflating balloon. It started at zero size and now it is about 30 billion light years across.

You are such a point. You are on that surface of the space balloon. It is where you are and moving makes no difference as wherever you go it is the same for you. You cannot be on a different place relative to the whole universe because you are in the universe.

Everything is getting further away from you in space.

Now what about time?

It is just another dimension. It is expanding. It started at no seconds and now it is about 15 billion years in duration.

Just as you are at the expanding edge of the universe on space (the point on the balloon that you cannot get off) so you are at the expanding edge of time. Look anywhere and you look back in time. The further away that star is, the longer it took for its light to reach you.

You can only look backwards in space and time. You must travel forwards as the edge of space time expands with you stuck on it. You cannot see the forwards (future) space time as it has not yet been created, you are stuck in the here and now, only able to look back and see and remember the past.

That is the arrow of time. Simple. Easy. A child of five with a toy balloon could get it. Nothing to see here, move along. Little joke there of course. God bless.

What is a dimension?

Reader warning: You are highly unlikely to understand this article unless you have read all my preceding physics articles.

screen-shot-2016-10-22-at-7-58-46-amIllustration is just for artistic flavor – copyright rests with the author of this blog.

What is a dimension?

A dimension is a direction that a probability wave can extend along.

It is defined by it’s angular relationship to other dimensions (or tangential relationship if any closed-loop is present) and its closedness.

One dimension is a line. If closed it is a loop, large or small. Two and you have a surface, if closed it is a sphere or  a torus.

Hmm, so how does a dimension curve, unless there is another “direction” “above” it, into which it curves in order to loop? What should we call these extra dimensions? There is something to develop.

The wave-crest model of the (“The” – singular) electron is (in previous articles) explained as the amplitude of probability poking above a plane of significance which is the level at which we perceive the electron, and this gives rise to the perceived physical boundary in space that we define as the fuzzy location of this particle. You may remember this is how the particle/wave duality of the electron is resolved – if you read that in one of my earlier articles. The electron is fuzzy because the probability of it (actually its “edge”) being there varies with time (time is another necessary dimension for our perception/ experience/ viability but let’s not go there for now), but perhaps also fuzzy because the level at which significance/perception intersects the wave, truncating off a neat little package of electron, just maybe goes up and down.

We can “remove” some of these “dimensions” from our working memory scratchpad – the ones that don’t have to be “real” “plains” can just be trigger values – but for the sake of elegance and simplicity if might be better to stick with them in our scratchpad, even if it makes mentally juggling the interfaces between so many dimensions difficult. Just keep hold of the idea that these are quite possibly all simply notional directions in which probability waves can extend. This accords best with the understanding that everything is simply a thought spoken by God and held there by His existence.

Pi in the sky.

1 Kings 7:23 (KJV)
2 Chronicles 4:2 (KJV)
both tell us about a large ceremonial vessel that King Soloman had made.

If something appears more than once in the Bible it is VERY IMPORTANT.

Reading these, taking a simple approach to these translations of originally Hebrew writings can lead us to think that the value of Pi (the ratio of a circle’s circumference to its diameter) was either believed to be 3 in those times, or that the Bible reports the matter wrongly.

This can lead to speculation as to whether space was hyperbolically (negatively) curved by Pi over 3 which would give a value of Pi as 3. Apart from possible flaws in my math (!) there are probable flaws in that as a theory because Pi is meaningless in non-Euclidian geometries (try it with different circles on the surface of a sphere for instance).

Fortunately a great bible scholar has explained the apparent discrepancy in the reported values by resort to analysis of the Hebrew text. The way the Hebrew is written is odd and has additions to the words that tell us to apply Hebrew letter values to the measurements in the account, and when this is done, Pi comes out as very very accurate in engineering terms. Chuck Missler’s explanation is here

Job 26:10 (KJV) describes “He hath compassed the waters with bounds, until the day and night come to an end.”

This is sometimes, in other translations of the Bible, given as inscribing a circle of light on the earth, between day and night. Whatever, it is clear from other passages in Job – e.g. 26:7 (“He stretcheth out the north over the empty place, and hangeth the earth upon nothing.”) – that the Earth is being described as it is seen from space (who has seen the regions of the North Pole or the Earth hanging in space when that was written eh?

These clues peppered around the Bible ask us to think about the circumference of our planet and how it might change, whilst giving a watery oceanic context to the puzzle. Kings, Chronicles, Job all talk of circles and seas.

When considering water on a global scale we are led to think about Genesis and the great flood. I wrote about the Knuckle theory of the great flood  at

In terms of the Knuckle theory, think about the difference between the circumference of the earth pre- and post- the collapse of the outer shell of land (that squeezed out the underground sea as the fountains of the deep). Is that difference related in magnitude to the apparent difference between Pi and 3 pointed to in Kings and Chronicles? If so we have another watermark (pun?!) of truth and authenticity that cross-authenticates the Bible itself and the history of the flood that it gives us.

If the underground sea was about 500 miles down (460) which is an approximation of the depth used in knuckle theory, then the diameter of the earth around the inner sea’s top surface is about 1000 miles (1250) less than the diameter of the earth that is described from space in Job. This gives a difference in the calculated circumference of those two spheres that is close to the difference between Pi and 3.

Things in the Bible are important if they are repeated. God’s word invites us to enquire, to make connections and see that things in it that may at first seem difficult to comprehend are actually true. He gives us in the Bible a careful network of supporting evidence that shows that not only is the Bible a coherent whole that could only have been assembled for us by divine guidance for it’s hidden logical watermarks to align, but tells us of things we would find hard to believe – the writer knew what the Earth looks like from space (He had seen it’s stunning beauty and just had to describe that amazing sight) – hard to believe things such as that there was a great flood.

As Chuck Missler so appositely quotes:

But the Comforter, which is the Holy Ghost, whom the Father will send in my name, he shall teach you all things, and bring all things to your remembrance, whatsoever I have said unto you. – John 14:26

As I was typing this, David Maasbach on his radio station quoted:

John 16:14 (KJV) He shall glorify me: for he shall receive of mine, and shall shew it unto you.

Link to the lovely Maasbach Radio for your listening enjoyment. What a good looking website by the way.


As I was about to post this I read that NASA have discovered the oldest galaxy yet, named GN-z11. Story here. Sounds a bit like Genesis 1:1 (KJV) – “In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth.”  Ha Ha! SOMEONE has a sense of humour.

Praise the Lord!